Effects of combined mowing, tillage and herbicide control of invasive smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora, on use by shorebirds and waterfowl of tidal habitats at Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Willapa Bay, Washington, USA
This study is summarised as evidence for the following.
Plough habitatsAction Link
Treat wetlands with herbicideAction Link
A controlled study in 2003-2004 on mudflats and areas of Spartina alterniflora meadows in Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Washington, USA (Patten & O'Casey 2007), found that average densities of waders and wildfowl were significantly higher on areas of Spartina meadow that were ploughed, compared to untreated areas or areas completely sprayed with herbicide (see ‘Treat wetlands with herbicide’). Densities of some groups were 100 times those on the control areas, whilst some species found on the tilled meadows were never found on untreated Spartina. In addition, densities of unidentified Calidris spp. sandpipers, dowitchers Limnodromus spp. and waterfowl were significantly higher on tilled areas than on bare mud. The area was ploughed in winter-spring 2001, disked in winter 2002, and spot-treated with glyphosate during the summers of 2003 and 2004.
Treat wetlands with herbicide
A controlled study in 2003-2004 on mudflats and areas of Spartina alterniflora meadows in Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Washington, USA Patten & O'Casey 2007), found that average densities of unidentified Calidris spp. sandpipers (62 birds/ha vs. 7), western sandpiper Calidris mauri (50 vs. 5) and waterfowl (16 vs. 0.8) were significantly higher on areas of Spartina meadow spayed with glyphosate (9 kg/ha) in 2002-2003, and imazapyr (1.7 kg/ha) in 2004, compared to control areas. However, densities of dunlin Calidris alpina, grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola and dowitchers Limnodromus spp. did not differ, all birds were less common than on ploughed areas of Spartina and all but dowitchers and waterfowl were less common than on adjacent mudflats.