Action

Action Synopsis: Bird Conservation About Actions

Use repellents to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
    51%
  • Certainty
    10%
  • Harms
    0%

Source countries

Key messages

A randomised, replicated and controlled ex situ trial from the USA found that fewer common starlings Sturnus vulgaris consumed contaminated water when it was treated with repellents, compared to untreated water.

 

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A randomised, replicated and controlled trial in captivity in Philadelphia, USA (Clark & Shah 1993), found that 36 common starlings Sturnus vulgaris consumed less mine-pond water if it was treated with bird repellents, compared to untreated mine-pond water. The repellents tested were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone, methyl anthranilate, 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT) and veratryl amine, all at concentrations of 0.5% by volume. The most effective repellent was OAP and the least effective 4KBT; there were no significant differences between effectiveness of any of the other chemicals. All repellents were effective for five weeks on water which was pH 10.6 and contained 150 ppm sodium cyanide.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Williams, D.R., Child, M.F., Dicks, L.V., Ockendon, N., Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Walsh, J.C., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Bird Conservation. Pages 141-290 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, U

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Bird Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Bird Conservation

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, terrestrial mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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