Issue enforcement notices to deter use of non bear-proof garbage dumpsters to reduce human-wildlife conflict

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
    10%
  • Certainty
    30%
  • Harms
    0%

Source countries

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects of issuing enforcement notices to deter use of non bear-proof garbage dumpsters to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA.

COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES)

POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES)

BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)

OTHER (1 STUDY)

  • Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that issuing enforcement notices requiring appropriate dumpster use did not reduce garbage accessibility to black bears.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in 2008 of four alleyways in business and residential areas in Colorado, USA (Baruch-Mordo et al. 2011) found that issuing enforcement notices requiring appropriate dumpster use did not reduce garbage accessibility to black bears Ursus americanus. Changes in the proportion of dumpsters violating legislation in alleyways where enhanced enforcement occurred (after enforcement: 20% of dumpsters; before: 42%) did not significantly differ from those in alleyways without enhanced enforcements (after: 24% of dumpsters; before: 49%). Similarly, there was no significant difference in changes in legislation compliance between individual dumpsters issued with enforcement notices (after issuing: 36% of dumpsters; before: 72%) and those not (after: 17% of dumpsters; before 36%). In treatment alleys (with 37 dumpsters) there were daily patrols. Twenty-two written notices were issued on 18 dumpsters and two verbal warnings were given. Two additional alleys (30 dumpsters) had continuing lower level of enforcement action. Pre- and post-treatment surveys took place between 1 July and 25 August 2008. Dumpsters were regarded as violating legislation if they were not bear-resistant or if food waste was otherwise accessible.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation - Published 2020

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

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