Amphibians: Provide artificial aquifers for species which breed in upwelling springs

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Source countries

Key messages

  • One small study in the USA found that salamanders bred in an aquarium fitted with an artificial aquifer.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A small, before-and-after study in 1990–1994 in Dallas, USA found that Texas salamanders Eurycea neotenes bred more successfully in an aquarium with an artificial aquifer compared to without, although no statistical tests were carried out. With access to the aquifer one female deposited eggs in April 1993 (number not reported), a second female laid 40 eggs in May, and 50 in March 1994. Without access to the aquifer one female laid 19 eggs in February 1991 but no other breeding activity was observed. Prior to 1993, salamander pairs had been kept within one of three aquariums, one with gravel substrate, one heavily planted with aquatic plants, and one with partially buried rocks and rock shards. The only eggs laid were in the planted aquarium, fixed singly to live plants. In 1993, two pairs of salamanders were placed in an aquarium with a 1.2 m long acrylic tube filled with limestone shards attached to the bottom. Water was pumped up through this aquifer to replicate an upwelling spring.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Jonas, C.S., Timbrell, L.L., Young, F., Petrovan, S.O., Bowkett, A.E. & Smith, R.K. (2018) Management of Captive Animals. Pages 495-523 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2018. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.


Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Management of Captive Animals

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Management of Captive Animals
Management of Captive Animals

Management of Captive Animals - Published 2018

Captive Animal Synopsis

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation assesses the research looking at whether interventions are beneficial or not. It is based on summarised evidence in synopses, on topics such as amphibians, bats, biodiversity in European farmland, and control of freshwater invasive species. More are available and in progress.

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